ارزیابی تشکیل اندوده سطحی و ارتباط آن با شاخص‌های کیفیت خاک

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

گروه علوم و مهندسی خاک، دانشکده مهندسی و فناوری کشاورزی، دانشگاه تهران، کرج، ایران

چکیده

اندوده سطحی پدیده­ای ویژه در بیش‏تر مناطق خشک و نیمه‏خشک با پیامدهای شدید کشاورزی و محیطی است که باعث کاهش تخلخل لایه سطحی و نفوذپذیری، و افزایش رواناب و فرسایش خاک می‏شود. این پژوهش با هدف ارزیابی تشکیل اندوده سطحی و اثر آن بر شاخص کیفیت خاک انجام شد. در این تحقیق، 40 نمونه خاک به صورت مرکب و از عمق 10-0 سانتی‏متر در کاربری‏های مختلف از هشت استان کشور برداشت شد. مهم‏ترین ویژگی­های فیزیکی و شیمیایی نمونه­های خاک از جمله شاخص اندوده سطحی، ضریب آبگذری و ضریب هواگذری قبل و بعد از اعمال بارندگی اندازه‏گیری شد. نتایج نشان داد که به جزء چهار نمونه خاک جنگلی با متوسط کربن آلی حدود 5/5 درصد و شاخص اندوده سطحی حدود یک، تمام نمونه خاک‏های مورد مطالعه دارای شاخص اندوده سطحی بیش‏تر از یک و مستعد تشکیل اندوده سطحی بودند. به طور متوسط، در اثر تشکیل اندوده سطحی، ضریب آبگذری و ضریب هواگذری هر دو حدود 58 درصد کاهش یافتند و از لحاظ کیفیت خاک، نمره این دو نشانگر متاثر از اندوده سطحی نیز به ترتیب به طور متوسط حدود 57 و 66 درصد کاهش پیدا کرد. نتایج ارزیابی شاخص‏های کیفیت تجمعی و نمرو نشان داد که ارزیابی کیفیت خاک بدون در نظر گرفتن اندوده سطحی و ضریب آبگذری و ضریب هواگذری متاثر از آن، باعث بیش برآوردی ارزیابی کیفیت خاک در اکثر نمونه‏های خاک مورد مطالعه شد. این بیش برآوردی در خاک‏های با ساختمان نسبتا پایدار، کم‏تر از پنج درصد و در خاک‏های با ساختمان ناپایدار، بیش از 20 درصد بود.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Assessment of Surface Sealing Formation and Its Relationship with Soil Quality Indices

نویسندگان [English]

  • Ayoub Avizhgan
  • Hossein Asadi
  • Mohammad Hosein Mohammadi
  • Manouchehr Gorji
Soil Science Department, Faculty of Agricultural Engineering and Technology, University of Tehran, Karaj, Iran
چکیده [English]

 
Surface sealing is a special phenomenon in most arid and semi-arid regions with severe agricultural and environmental consequences that reduces the porosity of soil surface and infiltration, and increases runoff and soil erosion. The aim of this study was to evaluate formation of surface sealing and its effect on soil quality indices. In this study, 40 soil samples (0-10 cm) were collected from different land uses from eight provinces of Iran. The most important physical and chemical properties of the soil samples were measured. Also, surface sealing index (SI), and saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ks) and air permeability coefficient (Ka) were evaluated before and after rainfall application. The results showed with the exception of four forest soil samples with mean organic carbon of 5.5% and SI>1, all soil samples were prone to seal formation. Also, due to seal formation, both Ks and Ka were reduced in average by 58%, and in terms of soil quality, the scores of these two indicators were reduced by 57% and 66%, respectively. Evaluation of soil quality by integrated and Nemero quality indices showed that the soil quality score is overestimated for most of the soils when SI and its effect on Ks and Ka were not accounted in evaluation. This overestimation was less than 5% for the soil samples with stable aggregates, and more than 20% for the soils with weak aggregates.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Integrated Quality Index
  • Nemero quality index
  • Rainfall simulation
  • Air permeability coefficient
  • Saturated hydraulic conductivity
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