ارزیابی فلزات سنگین در آب و رسوبات رودخانه هراز، با استفاده از شاخص بار آلودگی (PLI) و شاخص تجمع جغرافیایی (Igeo)

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 کارشناس ‌ارشد، مهندسی عمران گرایش مهندسی و مدیریت منابع آب مدیریت منابع آب

2 دانشجو کارشناس ‌ارشد، مهندسی عمران گرایش مهندسی و مدیریت منابع آب مدیریت منابع آب

چکیده

در سال‌های اخیر پساب سمی و شیمیایی فعالیت‌های کشاورزی و صنعتی بدون رعایت ملاحظات زیست‌محیطی وارد آب­های سطحی شده است که این عمل باعث ایجاد آلودگی آب ،آلودگی رسوبات رودخانه و ایجاد مشکلات عدیده‌ای برای محیط‌زیست شده است. در این پژوهش مرتبه آلودگی چهار فلز سنگین آرسنیک (As)، کروم (Cr)، کادمیوم (Cd) و سرب (Pb) در آب و رسوبات رودخانه هراز از استان مازندران  با استفاده از  ضریب آلودگی (CF)، شاخص بار آلودگی (PLI) و شاخص تجمع جغرافیایی (Igeo) مورد ارزیابی قرار گرفت. نتایج نشان داد دامنه غلظت فلزات سنگین آرسنیک (As)، کروم (Cr)، کادمیوم (Cd) و سرب (Pb) در آب به ترتیب 03/3 – 99/3، 55/2 – 92/3، 94/1- 42/2 و 96/3 – 3/5 میکروگرم در لیتر و در رسوب به ترتیب 12/2 - 15/5، 91/29 – 71/32، 02/1 – 03/1 و 62/6 – 46/9 میلی‌گرم در کیلوگرم بوده است. غلظت فلزات سنگین در سایت‌های پایین دست به علت دفع زباله‌های شهری، پساب‌های تصفیه نشده از صنایع مختلف و فعالیت­های زیاد کشاورزی بیش ‌از حد ایمن آب آشامیدنی است. شاخص مرتبه بار آلودگی فلزات سنگین (PLI) در نمونه‌های رسوب در مرتبه آلودگی پایین و متوسط و همچنین مرتبه آلودگی شاخص جغرافیایی(Igeo) در نمونه‌های رسوب در مرتبه بدون آلودگی و آلودگی متوسط قرار داشته است. این مطالعه به نظارت مداوم فلزات سنگین در آب، رسوبات و سایر زیست ‌توده‌های آبی رودخانه هراز برای ارزیابی خطر به­منظور ایمن‌سازی محیط‌زیست در مجاورت رودخانه توصیه می‌کند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Evaluation of Heavy Metals in Water and Sediments of Haraz River, Using Pollution Load Index (PLI) and Geoaccumulation Index (Igeo)

نویسندگان [English]

  • reza khalili 1
  • abolfazl zali 1
  • hamed motaghi 2
1 M.Sc., Civil Engineering, majoring in Engineering and Water Resources Management, Water Resources Management
2 M.Sc., Civil Engineering, majoring in Engineering and Water Resources Management, Water Resources Management
چکیده [English]

In recent years, toxic and chemical effluents from agricultural and industrial activities have entered into surface waters without considering environmental considerations, which has caused water pollution, contamination of river sediments and many environmental hazards. In this study, the concentration of four heavy metals of arsenic (As), chromium (Cr), cadmium (Cd), and lead (Pb) in water and sediments of Haraz River in Mazandaran province was investigated using Contamination Factor (CF), Pollution Load Index (PLI) and Geoaccumulation Index (Igeo). The results showed that the concentration ranges of arsenic (AS), chromium (Cr), cadmium (Cd), and lead (Pb) in water are 3.03- 3.99, 2.55-3.92, 1.94-2.42, and 3.96-5.3 mg/lit, and in sediment are  2.12-5.15, 29.91-32.71, 1.02-1.03, and 6.62-9.46 mg/kg, respectively. The concentration of heavy metals in downstream sites (S7 and S8) were higher than the standard drinking water, due to the disposal of waste, untreated effluents from various industries and excessive agricultural activities. The pollution load index (PLI) of  heavy metals in sediment samples was in low and medium pollution level and the Geoaccumulation Index (Igeo) in sediment samples was in the level of no and medium pollution. This study suggests a continuous monitoring of heavy metals in water, sediments and other aquatic biomasses, which is crucial in Haraz River to ensure the environmental safety adjacent to the river.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Heavy metals
  • surface water
  • sediments
  • Pollution load index (PLI) and Geoaccumulation index (Igeo)
 
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