برآورد مقادیر تبخیروتعرق در مقیاس حوضه آبریز با استفاده از مدل SWAT و الگوریتم SEBAL

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی مقطع دکتری رشته مهندسی عمران گرایش مهندسی و مدیریت منابع آب، دانشکده مهندسی عمران، آب و محیط زیست، دانشگاه شهید بهشتی

2 استادیار دانشکده مهندسی عمران، آب و محیط زیست، دانشگاه شهید بهشتی (نویسنده مسئول)

3 استادیار دانشکده مهندسی عمران، آب و محیط زیست، دانشگاه شهید بهشتی

چکیده

برآورد تبخیروتعرق واقعی در حوضه‌های آبریز به منظور استفاده بهینه از منابع آب و بهبود مدیریت حوضه‌ها، امری ضروری است. از جمله روش­های شناخته­شده­ای که به این مساله می‌پردازند، مدل هیدرولوژیکی SWAT‌  و الگوریتم سنجش از دور SEBAL هستند. در این مطالعه، در گام اول، مقادیر تبخیروتعرق حوضه آبریز کرخه، در سه سال خشک، نرمال و تر (به ترتیب: 2008، 2012 و 2015)، با استفاده از مدل SWAT واسنجی شده براساس رواناب و عملکرد محصول و الگوریتم SEBAL به­دست آمده است. مدل SWAT‌ با استفاده از 6 ایستگاه هیدرومتری برای دوره­های 2009-1993 و 2013-2010، به ترتیب واسنجی و اعتبارسنجی شد که برای دوره واسنجی، مقادیر ضریب تبیین  ( R2) بین 45/0 تا 70/0، ضریب نش- ساتکلیف (NS) بین 52/0 تا 67/0 و ریشه میانگین مربعات خطا (RMSE) بین 64/12 تا (m3/s) 02/25 و برای دوره اعتبارسنجی، مقادیر R2 بین 4/0 تا 60/0، NS بین 30/0 تا 56/0 و RMSE بین 08/11 تا (m3/s) 17/23 بوده است. همچنین متوسط عملکرد مشاهداتی و شبیه­سازی­شده محصول استراتژیک حوضه که گندم است، به ترتیب برابر با 70/4 و 01/5 تن در هکتار بوده است. در ادامه، نتایج الگوریتم SEBAL و مدل SWAT براساس وضعیت سال آبی، با یکدیگر مورد مقایسه قرار گرفتند که همبستگی میان نتایج این دو روش، برای سه سال نرمال، خشک و تر به ترتیب برابر با 74/0، 60/0 و 52/0 بوده است. در گام دوم از این مطالعه، با توجه به داده­های زمینی و با استفاده از تصاویر سنجنده MODIS از ماهواره Terra که دارای قدرت تفکیک زمانی مناسب است و سنجنده OLI از ماهواره Landsat8 که دارای قدرت تفکیک مکانی مناسب است، نتایج الگوریتم SEBAL و محدوده تغییرات پارامترهای اصلی این الگوریتم در دشت­های پل­دختر و روانسر، ارائه شده است. دشت روانسر دارای سطح زیر کشت بالاتر و تغییرات توپوگرافی کم­تر است. شبیه­سازی عملکرد محصول توسط نرم­افزار SWAT، در دشت پل­دختر نتیجه بهتری به­دست داده است. با توجه به یافته­های این تحقیق، مقادیر تبخیروتعرق مستخرج از الگوریتم SEBAL و مدل SWAT می­توانند نزدیک به مقادیر واقعی تبخیروتعرق در حوضه باشند.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Estimating Evapotranspiration Values in River Basin Scale Using SWAT Model and SEBAL Algorithm

نویسندگان [English]

  • Nadia Babaei 1
  • Mojtaba Shourian 2
  • Ali Moridi 3
1 Ph.D Candidate of Water Resources Engineering and Management, Faculty of Civil, Water and Environmental Engineering, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran;
2 (Corresponding Author) Assistant Professor, Faculty of Civil, Water and Environmental Engineering, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran;
3 Assistant Professor, Faculty of Civil, Water and Environmental Engineering, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran;
چکیده [English]

Estimating actual evapotranspiration in river basins is necessary to use water resources optimally and to improve river basin management. SWAT hydrologic model and SEBAL remote sensing algorithm are among the known methods which have addressed this issue. In the present study, in the first step, the actual evapotranspiration of Karkheh river basin was estimated in dry, normal, and wet years (2008, 2012, and 2015, respectively), using the SWAT model calibrated based on runoff and crop yield and SEBAL algorithm. SWAT model was calibrated and validated using six hydrometric stations for the periods of 1993-2009 and 2010-2013, respectively, in which the , NS and RMSE values were ​​obtained between 0.45 to 0.7, 0.52 to 0.67 and 12.64 to 25.02 (m3/s) for the calibration period and between 0.4 to 0.6, 0.3 to 0.56 and 11.08 to 23.17 (m3/s) for the validation period, respectively. Further, the average observed and simulated yield of the strategic crop (wheat) in the basin were equal to 4.70 and 5.01 (ton/ha), respectively. In addition, the results of SEBAL algorithm and SWAT model were compared together based on the water year status, which the correlations between the results of those methods were equal to 0.74, 0.60, and 0.52 for normal, dry, and wet years, respectively. In the second step, based on the ground data and MODIS, which has a suitable temporal resolution, and OLI which has a suitable spatial resolution, the results of SEBAL algorithm and the variation ranges of main parameters are presented for Pole-dokhtar and Ravansar plains. Ravansar plain has more cultivation areas and lower topography changes compared to Pole-dokhtar plain. The simulation of crop yield by SWAT gave a better result in Pole-dokhtar plain. Based on the results of this study, the values ​​of evapotranspiration obtained from SEBAL algorithm and SWAT model can be reliable and close to the actual values ​​of evapotranspiration in the river basin.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Evapotranspiration
  • Runoff
  • Crop Yield
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