بررسی تنش شوری و خشکی بر کاهش جذب آب گیاه تحت شرایط تنش همزمان

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 گروه علوم و مهندسی خاک- دانشکده مهندسی و فناوری کشاورزی- پردیس کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی- دانشگاه تهران- کرج- ایران

2 گروه بیابان زدایی- دانشکده کویرشناسی- دانشگاه سمنان- سمنان- ایران

چکیده

این تحقیق به­منظور بررسی تاثیر تنش­های شوری و خشکی بر میزان کاهش جذب آب توسط گیاه ذرت انجام شد. به­منظور اعمال این تنش­ها، گلدان­ها به دو قسمت تنش شوری و خشکی تقسیم شدند. آزمایش­های گلخانه­ای در دو فصل بهار و پاییز در گلخانه به­صورت طرح کاملا تصادفی با چهار تکرار در سال 1396 انجام شدند. گلدان­ها به دو قسمت شامل تنش­های شوری و خشکی تقسیم شدند. جذب آب گیاه به­صورت روزانه در قسمت شوری گلدان تحت پتانسیل ماتریک 100 سانتی­متر در سطوح شوری مختلف آب آبیاری (0، 7/1، 36/3، 33/6 و 35/8 دسی­زیمنس بر متر) اندازه­گیری شد. پتانسیل اسمزی در گلدان­ها بعد از شروع اعمال تیمار ثابت نگه داشته شد. پتانسیل­های ماتریک و اسمزی بر اساس جذب آب برابر ریشه­ها در قسمت شوری و خشکی گلدان­ها کمی­سازی شدند. در بهار، نسبت پتانسیل ماتریک به اسمزی در تیمارهای خشکی D1، D2، D3، D4 و تیمارهای شوری S1، S2،S3، S4 متناظر برابر با 28/0، 5/0، 47/0 و 46/0بود. در پاییز، این نسبت­ها در تیمارهای خشکی D1، D2، D3، D4 و تیمارهای شوری S1، S2،S3، S4 متناظر به ترتیب 25/0، 32/0، 32/0 و 33/0 بودند. کاهش جذب آب با یک واحد کاهش پتانسیل ماتریک بیشتر از یک واحد کاهش پتانسیل اسمزی بود. پتانسیل اسمزی اثر بیشتری بر کاهش جرم ریشه تحت شرایط مصرف آب برابر داشت. این نتایج نشان داد فرضیه جمع­پذیر یا ضرب­پذیر بودن پتانسیل­های ماتریک و اسمزی صحیح نمی­باشد. نتایج این مطالعه جهت مدیریت دقیق آب آبیاری تحت تنش­های شوری و خشکی می­تواند استفاده شود.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Investigation of Salinity and Drought Stress on Plant Water Uptake Reduction under Simultaneous Stress Condition

نویسندگان [English]

  • abouzar bazrafshan 1
  • Mehdi Shorafa 1
  • Mohammad Hossein Mohammadi 1
  • Ali Asghar Zolfaghari 2
1 Department of Soil Science- Faculty of Agricultural Engineering and Technology-College of Agricultural and Natural Resources- University of Tehran- Karaj- Iran
2 Department of Desert Science- Faculty of Desert Studies- University of Semnan- Semnan- Iran
چکیده [English]

This study was conducted to investigate the effect of salinity and drought stress on water uptake reduction by maize. In order to exert this stresses, the pots were divided into two compartments including salinity and drought stresses. For two seasons, greenhouse experiments were conducted in a randomized design with four replicates in 2017. Water uptake by maize was measured daily in saline compartment of pots under constant matric potential of -100 cm, in different salinity levels of irrigation water (0, 1.7, 3.36, 6.33 and 8.35 dS m-1). The osmotic potential in pots was kept constant after the treatment initiation. The matric and osmotic potentials were quantified based on equal water uptake by roots in salinity and drought compartments of pots. In spring, the ratio of matric to osmotic potential was 0.28, 0.5, 0.47 and 0.46 in corresponding drought treatments (D1, D2, D3, D4)  and salinity treatments (S1, S2, S3, S4). For autumn, these ratios were 0.25, 0.32, 0.32 and 0.33 in corresponding drought treatments (D1, D2, D3, D4) and salinity treatments (S1, S2, S3, S4). Water uptake reduction by one unit decrease of matric potential was found to be more than the one caused by one unit decrease of osmotic potential. Osmotic potential had more effect than the matric potential on reducing root mass under the same water use conditions. These results indicated that the assumption of matric and osmotic potentials to be additive or multiplicative is not valid. The results of this study can be used to accurately manage irrigation water under salinity and drought stresses.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • osmotic potential
  • Matric potential
  • water uptake
  • root system
  • maize
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