تاثیر کم‌آبیاری و سطوح مختلف نیتروژن بر عملکرد و بهره‌وری آب گندم (مطالعه موردی: خرم آباد)

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی آبیاری زهکشی گروه مهندسی آب دانشکده کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی خرم آباد. دانشگاه لرستان

2 دانشگاه لرستان- استادیار گروه مهندسی آب دانشکده کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی

3 استادیار گروه مهندسی اب دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه لرستان

4 استادیارگروه مهندسی آب دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه لرستان

چکیده

با توجه به اهمیت مدیریت آبیاری و استفاده بهینه کود در هر منطقه، به­منظور بررسی تاثیر کم­آبیاری و سطوح مختلف کود بر عملکرد و بهره­وری آب گندم پائیزه رقم چمران دو در خرم­آباد، یک طرح فاکتوریل با پایه بلوک­های کامل تصادفی شامل 27 پلات: سه سطح ­آبیاری (100 درصد نیاز آبی (I100)، 75 درصد نیاز آبی (I75) و50 درصد نیاز آبی (I50))، سه سطح کودی (100 (N100)، 150 (N150) و 200 (N200) کیلوگرم در هکتار) و سه تکرار در مزرعه تحقیقاتی دانشکده کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی دانشگاه لرستان انجام شد. در این پژوهش میزان عملکرد دانه، عملکرد بیولوژیک، وزن هزار دانه، طول سنبله، ارتفاع بوته، بهره­وری آب آبیاری (عملکرد دانه و عملکرد بیولوژیک)، بهره­وری آب باران (عملکرد دانه و عملکرد بیولوژیک) بررسی شد. نتایج نشان داد، بیشترین مقدار صفات مختلف در تیمار I100N200 حاصل شد به­طوری که میزان عملکرد دانه و عملکرد بیولوژیک به­ترتیب 41/3407 و 51/11097 کیلوگرم در هکتار به­دست آمد. همچنین کمترین مقادیر عملکرد دانه و عملکرد بیولوژیک در تیمار I50N100 با 65/45 و 6/32 درصد کاهش عملکرد نسبت به شرایط آبیاری کامل مشاهده شد. اثر متقابل تنش آبی و نیتروژن نشان داد که در همه­ی تیمار­های آبیاری با افزایش میزان کود نیتروژن تا سطح 200 کیلوگرم در هکتار، عملکرد دانه و عملکرد بیولوژیک افزایش یافت. همچنین نتایج نشان داد، اثر متقابل تیمار­های آبیاری و کود نیتروژن بر بهره­وری آب آبیاری بر پایه­ی عملکرد دانه و بهره­وری بارش هم بر پایه­ی عملکرد بیولوژیک و هم بر پایه­ی عملکرد دانه در سطح یک درصد معنی­دار است. تیمار I50N200 با 24/3 کیلوگرم بر متر مکعب بر پایه­ی عملکرد دانه و 78/10 کیلوگرم بر متر مکعب بر پایه­ی عملکرد بیولوژیک بیشترین بهره­وری آب آبیاری را داشت.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effect of Deficit Irrigation and Different Nitrogen Levels on Wheat Yield and Water Productivity (Case Study: Khorramabad)

نویسندگان [English]

  • fatemeh alizadeh 1
  • aliheidar nasrolahi 2
  • Mehri Saeidinia 3
  • Majid Sharifipour 4
1 Student of Drainage Irrigation Department of Water Engineering, Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Khorramabad.
2 Lorestan University - Assistant Professor of Water Engineering, Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Resources
3 Lorestan University - Assistant Professor of Water Engineering, Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Resources
4 Lorestan University - Assistant Professor of Water Engineering, Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Resources
چکیده [English]

Due to the importance of irrigation management and optimum use of fertilizer in each region, a factorial experiment based on randomized complete block design was conducted to investigate the effect of different irrigation and fertilizer levels on yield and water productivity of autumn wheat (Chamran-2) in Khorramabad. Totally 27 plots including three irrigation levels (100%, 75% and 50% of water requirement), three fertilizer levels (100, 150 and 200 kg ha-1) and three replications were used in the research farm of the Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Resources of Lorestan University. In this study, grain yield, biological yield, thousand seed weight, pod length, plant height, irrigation water productivity (grain yield and biological yield) and rain water productivity (grain yield and biological yield) were investigated. The results showed that the highest amount of traits were obtained in I100N200 treatment, so that the grain yield and biological yield were measured to be 3407/41 and 11097/51 kg ha-1, respectively. Also, the lowest amounts of grain yield and biological yield were observed in I50N100 treatment with 45.65 and 32.60% reduction in yield, respectively, as compared to full irrigation treatment. Interaction of water stress and nitrogen in all irrigation treatments showed by increasing nitrogen fertilizer up to 200 kg ha-1, the grain yield and biological yield increased. The results also showed that the interaction of irrigation and nitrogen fertilizer treatments on irrigation water productivity (grain yield) and rain water productivity (grain and biological yield) is significant at 1% level. The I50N200 treatment with 3.24 kg m-3 (grain yield) and 10.78 kg m-3 (biological yield) had the highest irrigation water productivity.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Grain yield
  • Chamran 2
  • Water Productivity
  • Biological yield
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