برآورد سرعت نشت در کانال‌های آبیاری با استفاده از معادلات نفوذ و روش غرقابی

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 گروه علوم و مهندسی آب، دانشکده کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه بین المللی امام خمینی (ره)، قزوین، ایران

2 گروه علوم و مهندسی آب، پردیس کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه تهران، کرج، ایران

چکیده

برآورد میزان نشت آب در کانال­های آبیاری از اهمیت زیادی برخودار است. روش­های مختلفی برای این منظور وجود دارد. مطالعات انجام شده در سطح شبکه­های آبیاری کشور به منظور تخمین میزان نشت در کانال­های آبیاری عمدتاً بر مبنای اندازه­گیری با استفاده از بیلان آب است. روش غرقابی یک روش استاندارد برای محاسبه سرعت نشت در کانال مطرح می­باشد. در این روش با انسداد محدوده مشخصی از کانال و اندازه­گیری افت سطح آب می­توان سرعت نشت را به­دست آورد. در این تحقیق، امکان استفاده از معادلات نفوذ کوستیاکف-لوئیس، فیلیپ، گرین-امپت و S.C.S برای تخمین میزان نشت بر مبنای آزمایش غرقابی مورد بررسی قرار گرفته است. با استفاده از داده­های موجود برای بخشی از کانال­های آبیاری شبکه­ای در کشور استرالیا، مشخص شد که معادله کوستیاکف-لوئیس با میانگین قدر مطلق خطای نسبی بین 3/2% تا 4/7%  بهترین مدل برای تخمین نشت آب از کانال است. نتایج مطالعه حاضر نشان داد که سرعت نشت به­دست آمده از معادلات نفوذ برخلاف روابط موجود که سرعت نشت را همواره مقداری ثابت برآورد می­کنند، مقداری ثابت نیست و با گذشت زمان، اشباع شدن خاک و کاهش سطح آب تغییر می‌کند. همچنین نتایج نشان داد که روش ارائه شده در این تحقیق در مقایسه با روش­های موجود حساسیت کمتری نسبت به مدت زمان داده­برداری دارد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Seepage Rate Estimation in Irrigation Canals Using Infiltration Equations and Ponding Test Method

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mohammad Bijankhan 1
  • Hosein Rabbaniha 2
1 Water Sciences and Eng. Dep., Faculty of agriculture and natural resources, Imam Khomeini International University, Qazvin, Iran.
2 Water Eng. Department,, Agriculture and natural resources,, University of Tehran, Karaj, Iran
چکیده [English]

Estimating infiltration amount is very important in irrigation canals. In this regard, there are different methods to obtain the infiltration amount. The studies done to estimate the seepage rates in Iran’s irrigation networks are based on the mass balance method. Ponding test is a benchmark method to determine the canal seepage rate. In this method, a specific distance of the canal is isolated and the seepage rate is obtained by measuring the water level reduction in the pond. In this study, the feasibility of using conventional infiltration models; Kostiakov-Luis, Philip, Green-Ampt, and S.C.S has been investigated to estimate the seepage rate based on the ponding test data. Employing the field data of some ponding tests carried out in irrigation network of Australia, it was found that Kostiakov-Luis, with mean absolute relative errors between 2.3% to 7.4%, is the best model to estimate the infiltration rate in the canal. Although the current methods give a constant seepage rate irrespective of the canal flow depth, the outcome of this study indicates that the seepage rate is not a constant value. It depends significantly on the elapsed time, water level, and soil moisture. Also, it was found that the proposed method is less sensitive to the data gathering duration compared to the current methods.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Seepage rate estimation
  • mass balance method
  • Kostiakov-Luis
  • Irrigation network
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