عمق نصب زهکش‌های زیرزمینی در مناطق خشک و نیمه‌خشک؛ چالش‎ها و راهکارها

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار، گروه مهندسی آب، دانشکده کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه لرستان، خرم‌آباد، ایران

2 عضو هیئت علمی (دانشیار) مؤسسه تحقیقات فنی و مهندسی کشاورزی، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، کرج، ایران

3 استاد، گروه مهندسی آبیاری و آبادانی، دانشکده مهندسی و فناوری کشاورزی، دانشگاه تهران، کرج، ایران

4 استاد، گروه آبیاری و زهکشی، دانشکده مهندسی علوم آب، دانشگاه شهید چمران اهواز، اهواز، ایران

چکیده

چالش اصلی در تعیین عمق زهکش‌ها در مناطق خشک و نیمه‌خشک، عدم کارآیی زهکش‌های کم‌عمق در کنترل شوری و در عین‌حال تخلیه زهاب بیشتر، شورتر و آلوده‌تر توسط زهکش‌های عمیق است. در فصل آبیاری، هدف زهکشی عمدتاً تهویه خاک است و عمق طراحی زهکش‌ها باید سطح آب زیرزمینی را در موقعیتی حفظ کند که از آسیب‌های ناشی از ماندابی جلوگیری شود. در دوره بدون آبیاری، حداقل عمق لازم برای زهکش‌ها باید به‌گونه‌ای باشد که از صعود شوری همراه با جریان مویینگی جلوگیری کند. شاید بهترین راهکار فائق آمدن بر تعارض کنترل شوری و آسیب کمتر به محیط‌زیست، زهکشی کنترل شده است. با این‌حال هزینه نصب تجهیزات و سازه‌های لازم برای این سامانه‌ها و همچنین مشکلات بهره‌برداری و نگهداری، سبب شده است تا اجرا و بهره‎برداری از آنها در کشورهای درحال توسعه گسترش زیادی پیدا نکند. شاید به‌نظر ساده‌ترین و کم‌هزینه‌ترین راهکار، شخم‌زدن خاک و یا هرگونه عملیات خاک‌ورزی است که موجب قطع لوله‌های مویین شود. ولی شخم زدن پس از برداشت محصول، محتوای مواد آلی خاک را در برابر نور آفتاب قرار می‌دهد که با سرعت اکسید می‌شوند و این امر بر حاصلخیزی اراضی اثر منفی خواهد گذاشت. یک راهکار قابل پیشنهاد دیگر سامانه زهکشی دوعمقی است. در چنین سامانه‌ای، وظیفه کنترل سطح ایستابی در فصل آبیاری بیشتر بر عهده زهکش‌های کم‌عمق است و در فصل بدون آبیاری سطح ایستابی به تراز زهکش‌های عمیق‌تر نزول می‌کند و پتانسیل شور شدن مجدد به وسیله خیز مویینگی کاهش می‌یابد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Installation Depth of Subsurface Drains in Arid and Semi-Arid Regions; Challenges and Solutions

نویسندگان [English]

  • Majid Sharifipour 1
  • Alireza Hassanoghli 2
  • Abdolmajid Liaghat 3
  • Abd Ali Naseri 4
1 Assistant Professor, Department of Water Engineering, Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Lorestan University, Khorramabad, Iran
2 Associated Professor, Agricultural Engineering Research Institute, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization, Karaj, Iran
3 Professor, Department of Irrigation and Reclamation Engineering, Faculty of Agricultural Engineering & Technology, University of Tehran, Karaj, Iran
4 Professor, Irrigation and Drainage Department, Faculty of Water Sciences & Engineering, Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Ahvaz, Iran
چکیده [English]

The main challenge in determining drainage depth in arid and semi-arid regions is the inefficiency of shallow drainage in salinity control and producing more drainage water by deep drains which is also more saline and more polluted. In the irrigation season, the focus of drainage is mainly on soil aeration, and the depth of the drainage design should keep the groundwater level in a position that avoids damages caused by waterlogging. During the non-irrigation period, the minimum depth required for drainage should be such as to prevent salinity increase through the capillary flow. Controlled drainage is the best way to overcome the conflict of salinity control and less damage to the environment. However, necessary equipment and structures for these systems are costly, as well as operational and maintenance problems, have led to a lack of expansion of such systems in developing countries. The simplest and cheapest solution to the problem is to plow the soil or any other tillage operation that will cut off the capillaries. But post-harvest plowing exposes soil organic matter to sunlight that is rapidly oxidized, which will have a negative impact on soil fertility. Another suggested solution is a bi-level drainage system. In such a system, the task of controlling the water level in the irrigation season is mostly the responsibility of shallow drains. In the non-irrigation season, the water level drops to deeper drain levels and the potential for re-salinization by capillary up-flow will be reduced.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • salinity
  • Drainage water
  • capillary
  • Controlled drainage
  • bi-level drainage
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