تأثیر آلودگی کادمیم و سرب بر کیفیت زیستی خاک و رشد گیاه کلزا (Brassica napus)

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانش آموخته کارشناسی ارشد بیولوژی و بیوتکنولوژی خاک دانشگاه رازی

2 استادیار گروه علوم و مهندسی خاک، دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه رازی، کرمانشاه، ایران

3 استاد گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات، دانشکده علوم و مهندسی کشاورزی دانشگاه رازی، کرمانشاه، ایران

چکیده

کادمیم و سرب جزء فلزهای سنگین بوده و باعث بروز اثرات سمی در گیاهان می‌شود. خاک به عنوان یکی از اجزای اکوسیستم محیط رشد گیاه و زیستگاه موجودات زنده متنوع، با انواع تنش‌های زیستی روبرو است. کادمیم و سرب اثرات سمی و بالقوه‌ای بر فعالیت و ترکیب موجودات زنده خاک دارند. پارامترهای میکروبی می‌توانند به منظور ارزیابی کیفیت خاک‌های آلوده مورد استفاده قرار گیرند. هدف از این مطالعه بررسی تأثیر آلودگی کادمیم و سرب بر پارامترهای کیفیت خاک و گیاه به منظور بررسی گیاه­پالایی کلزا بود. این آزمایش به صورت طرح کاملاً تصادفی با بررسی اثر سطوح کادمیم (0، 3، 5 و 10 میلی‌گرم بر کیلوگرم خاک) و سرب (0، 100، 300 و 600 میلی‌گرم بر کیلوگرم خاک) در سه تکرار روی گیاه کلزا (Brassica napus) در شرایط گلخانه‌ای انجام گردید. طول ساقه و ریشه، برخی خصوصیات فیزیولوژیک گیاه، غلظت کادمیم و سرب در اندام هوایی و ریشه و نیز برخی پارامترهای بیولوژیک خاک مورد ارزیابی قرار گرفت. بر اساس نتایج حاصل از این تحقیق، افزایش آلودگی سرب و کادمیم خاک موجب افزایش معنی‌دار (05/0>P) غلظت این عناصر در اندام هوایی و ریشه و نیز ضریب متابولیک (qco2) گردید. کادمیم و سرب موجب کاهش معنی‌دار (05/0>P) ارتفاع گیاه، کربن بیومس میکروبی (MBC)، تنفس میکروبی و تنفس برانگیخته با سوبسترا (SIR) شدند. پس عناصر کادمیم و سرب باعث تغییراتی در کلزا و ریزجانداران خاک می‌شوند.
کلمات کلیدی: آلودگی خاک، بیومس میکروبی، ضریب متابولیک، فلزهای سنگین.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effect of Cadmium and Lead Contamination on Biological Quality of Soil and Rapeseed (Brassica napus) Growth

نویسندگان [English]

  • Zeinab Azadbakht 1
  • Ali Beheshti Ale Agha 2
  • Danial Kahrizi 3
  • Mahin Karami 2
1 Postgraduate of Soil Biology and Biotechnology, Department of Soil Science, Razi University, Kermanshah, Iran
2 Assistance Professor of Department of Soil Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Razi University, Kermanshah, Iran
3 Professor of Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Razi University, Kermanshah, Iran
چکیده [English]

Cadmium and lead are heavy metals and cause toxic effects on plants. Soil, as one of the components of the ecosystem of the plant's growing environment and the habitat of diverse organisms, is encountered with a variety of biological stresses. Cadmium and lead have toxic and potential effects on the activity and composition of living organisms. Microbial parameters can be used to evaluate the quality of contaminated soils. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of cadmium and lead contamination on soil quality and plant parameters in order to evaluate phytoremediation of rapeseed. This experiment was conducted in a completely randomized design with three replicates to investigate the effect of cadmium levels (0, 3, 5 and 10 mg/kg soil) and lead levels (0, 100, 300 and 600 mg/kg soil) on rapeseed plant (Brassica napus) in greenhouse conditions. Stem and root length, some physiological characteristics, cadmium and lead concentrations in shoot and root and some biological parameters of soil were evaluated. Based on the results of this study, increasing soil contamination of lead and cadmium lead to a significant increase (P <0.05) in the concentration of these elements in the shoot and root and also in the metabolic coefficient (qco2). Cadmium and lead decreased significantly (P <0.05) plant height, microbial biomass carbon (MBC), microbial respiration and substrate-induced respiration (SIR). Therefore, the elements of cadmium and lead cause changes in rapeseed and microorganisms in the soil.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Soil contamination
  • Microbial biomass
  • Metabolic ratio
  • Heavy metals
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