بررسی نحوه تشکیل و طبقه‌بندی خاک‌های موجود در یک ردیف پستی و بلندی در منطقه فسارود داراب (استان فارس)

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی کارشناسی ارشد بخش علوم و مهندسی خاک دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه شیراز .شیراز.ایران

2 استاد بخش علوم و مهندسی خاک دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه شیراز. شیراز.ایران

3 دانشیار بخش علوم خاک دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه شیراز. شیراز.ایران

چکیده

مطالعه خاک­ها در امتداد یک ردیف پستی و بلندی، اصل مهمی برای بیان مفهوم تکامل و تغییرپذیری مکانی خاک­ها است که به صورت پیوسته در امتدادی مشخص تشکیل شده­اند. هدف اصلی این پژوهش بررسی دو رویکرد کانی­شناسی رس و شاخص شباهت سورنسون در توصیف تشکیل و تکامل خاک­های موجود در اراضی منطقه فسارود (داراب) می­باشد. سه واحد فیزیوگرافی؛ واریزه­های سنگریزه­دار، دشت دامنه­ای و دشت سیلابی در منطقه تعیین شدند. نه پدون مشاهداتی بر اساس نقشه واحدهای فیزیوگرافی منطقه در امتداد شمال غربی – جنوب شرقی حفر گردیدند. خاک­های واقع در دشت سیلابی به­صورت تیپیک اندواکوئپتز و اکسی اکوئیک هاپل یوستپز رده­بندی شده­اند که فرآیندهای گلی­زیشن و اکسیداسیون احیاء در آنها رخ داده است. دو زیرگروه خاک فلوونتیک هاپلیوستپز و تیپیک کلسی­یوستپز در واحد فیزیوگرافی دشت­ دامنه­ای شناسایی شدند که به­ترتیب وقوع دوره­ای فرآیندهای فرسایش و رسوب منجر به کاهش نامنظم کربن آلی و تشکیل افق زیر سطحی کلسیک از مهمترین مشخصه­های آنها می­باشد. موقعیت واریزه­های سنگریزه­دار دارای تیپیک یوست ­اورتنتز است که خاکی جوان و با بیش از 60 درصد سنگریزه در افق زیر سطحی می­باشد. کانی­شناسی رس نشان داد که کانی­های اسمکتیت، ایلایت، کلرایت، پالیگورسکیت و کائولینیت کانی­های موجود در موقعیت واریزه­های سنگریزه­دار، دشت دامنه­ای و دشت سیلابی می­باشند. نتایج شاخص تشابه خاکرخی از سطح راسته، زیرراسته، گروه بزرگ، زیرگروه و فامیل بترتیب 5/0، 54/0، 55/0، 74/0 و 74/0 حاصل شد که دارای روندی افزایشی می­باشد. به طور کلی رویکرد کمی شاخص تشابه نسبت به کانی­شناسی رس بهتر توانسته است تغییرات خاک­ها را در موقعیت­های مختلف شیب توصیف نماید.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Soil Genesis and Classification of Available Soils Along a Toposequence in Farsarood Region of Darab City, Fars Province

نویسندگان [English]

  • Pegah Khosravani 1
  • majid baghrnejad 2
  • Seyed ali Abtahi 2
  • Reza Ghasemi 3
1 M. Sc. Student, Soil Science Department, Faculty of Agriculture University of Shiraz, Shiraz. Iran
2 Prof., Soil Science Department, Faculty of Agriculture University of Shiraz, Shiraz. Iran
3 Assistant Prof., Soil Science Department, Faculty of Agriculture University of Shiraz, Shiraz. Iran
چکیده [English]

Surveying of soils along a toposequence is a primary key for identification of the spatial variability and development of soils that have been performed continuously at a certain direction. The main objective of this study is to assess both clay mineralogy and Sorensen similarity index to describe the genesis and development of soils in Fasarood region. In this context, three major physiographical units were recognized in this area (i.e., Colluvial fan, Piedmont plain and Flood plain). Moreover, nine presentative pedons were digged according to physiographical map units in the direction of NW to SE. Typic Endoaquepts and Oxyaquic Haplustepts are identified as dominant soils in the flood plain in which the redoximorphic and gleyzation processes have been occurred. Fluventic Haplustepts and Typic Calciustepts were recognized in the piedmont plain along with an irregular decrease in organic-carbon content as well as calcic horizon, caused by erosion and sedimentation, respectively. Typic Ustorthents is the major soil of Colluvial fan that have more than 60% coarse fragment in subsurface horizon. The results revealed that smectite, illite, cholorite, palygorskite and kaolinite were dominating minerals in colluvial fan, piedmont plain and flood plain. According to the similarity index, 0.5, 0.54, 0.55, 0.74 and 0.74 were achieved for order, suborder, great group, sub group, and family levels, respectively. Generally, similarity index could better describe soil variation in different slope position than clay mineralogy due to its quantity approach.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Clay mineralogy
  • Similarity index
  • Soil classes
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